DCU Library

Citing and Referencing

Harvard style 

Harvard is one of many citation styles.  DCU Library has produced a guide to using the Harvard Style, this guide is the Harvard style as interpreted by DCU Library. 

     DCU Library Guide to Harvard Style of Citing & Referencing (online)     -   printed version (pdf)  

APA style 

American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is widely used in the Social Sciences. DCU St Patrick's Campus students of the Department of Education are required to use this standard.
DCU Library has produced a guide which lists the most popular citation types with practical examples for both in-text citation and referencing. 

     DCU Library - APA Referencing Style Guide (pdf)

NOTE: If you are not sure which style you should be using, we recommend you check with your lecturer. 


DCU Library staff give classes/workshops to all students on How to avoid Plagiarism - using the Harvard Style . Details on our calendar of classes and workshops for all training.

Online tutorial

Visit LETScite our online tutorial for information on avoiding plagiarism and how to cite and reference correctly using the Harvard Style.


RefWorks is a reference management software tool that allows you to compile, edit and format bibliographies by importing references directly from library databases, library catalogue, Google Scholar and websites or by entering them manually and inserting them into your finished paper in the citation style of your choice (eg. Harvard). To use RefWorks you need to have a good understanding of citing and referencing and know how to use the library databases.

Training is available on how to use RefWorks - look up our calendar of classes and workshops.

Other Citation Styles used in DCU

If you are required to use a citation style other than Harvard, check your school's style-sheet/guidelines. The following is a list of the main citation styles, with links to books and online resources.

ACS (American Chemical Society)
The Bluebook (US law)
IEEE Style
MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association)
MLA (Modern Language Association of America)
OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities)